Three dimensional tools through which architects have displayed, archived, iterated, tested, and conceptualized projects and ideas. They are fundamentally related to spatial properties, but do not all have a direct relationship to spatial variables. These categorizations have grouped the model by its use throughout time.

Formal Study Model
Study and working models are heuristic tools that enable creative futures for design. They are formal objects with a specific scale. Beginning with Greek temples, and now with paper folding, these kinds of models have broadened the exploration of form through three dimensional iterations. Both physically and virtually they are more flexible and fuzzy than the rest of the models, often torn apart or reconfigured during the design phase. They are fundamentally related to culture.
Abstract Model Diagramatic or parti models are the most mutable and longitudinal forms of models. They are not scaled and can be best described as spatially conceptual. They are often metaphoric or non-direct in their relationship to the architecture being modeled. Beginning with pre-historic models of homes and tombs, these forms also include gothic labyths and architekton idea models. Their scale can shift from entire buildings meant to model heavenly bodies, to minute scraps of paper meant to evoke a formal gesture in a much larger building. They most certainly did not originate within the discipline, but have been absorbed and have become an integral part of both the digital and physical design process.
Digital Twin
The digital twin is a 1:1 digital reproduction of a building. It is most often constructed before the physical structure; it aids in construction management, clash detection, the production of drawings and images. However, its life extends beyond the construction and can be used for building management and maintenance.

Physical Mockup
Information and technical models test and catalogue the relationship between understood and discrete parts of a project. They fundamentally relate to engineering, information, and material capacities. They are non-heuristic and dimensionally precise duplications of the design they intend to mirror. These can either be produced at scale or a 1:1 reproduction. Beginning with Medieval tests of rudimentary cannon technologies, today these models are mostly digitized in virtual interfaces, encoded with technical specifications on their pricing, material, codes, operation, construction, and location.
Presentation Model Displays of works that bridge the gap between the architect and client or public. Beginning with Egyptian and Medieval duplications of homes and cathedrals, today specialized firms fabricate and digitize detailed models of architecture for final presentations, public viewings, archival records, image rendering, and office decoration. They are often near the end of a project, and are rendered in a more pristine and finite fashion.

Types of Models
Virtual / Digital
Topographic / Landscape
Animated / Breakaway